Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal

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The current widespread exposure of humans to natural as well as man-made nanomaterials due to the deployment of nanoparticles (NPs) as food additives, as vaccine- or drug-delivery vehicles, and in diagnostic procedures encourages the evaluation of their interaction with the innate immune system.

Understanding how organisms cope with hydrophobic and chemically inert particulate matter, which is excluded from metabolic processing, is of major importance for interpreting the responses associated with the use of NPs in the biosphere.

Therefore, the average diameters of the nanoparticles are expected to have a significant role only when exposed to cells in low concentrations.

Moreover, cytotoxicity assays showed no toxic effects of the Au NPs when MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to concentrations used in the experiments.

In the absence of interactions between the nanoparticles, we observe an asymmetric distribution of sizes with maximum uptake at intermediate sizes and a minimum size cut-off below which there can be no endocytosis.